Licensed radio communication
Licensed radio communication refers to radio communication that takes place on frequencies whose use requires a special license or permit. Licensed radio communications can be organized both in analog mode (at present, almost never occurs), and in digital mode. Popular digital commercial standards include:
- APCO 25 - developed by the Association of Public Security Communications Officials;
- TETRA- developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute;
- Tetrapol - developed by Matra Communication (France);
- iDEN - developed by Motorola (USA);
- EDACS - developed by the Association of Public Security Communication Officials;
- DMR- developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI);
- Private LTE networks.
The APCO 25 standard was developed by the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials-international, which brings together users of communications systems working in the public safety services.
Work on the standard began in late 1989, and the final standard-setting documents were approved and signed in August 1995 at the APCO International Conference and Exhibition in Detroit. Currently, the standard includes all the main documents that define the principles of building a radio interface and other system interfaces, encryption protocols, speech coding methods, etc.
TETRA is a digital trunked radio standard consisting of a set of specifications developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The TETRA standard was created as a single pan-European digital standard. Therefore, until April 1997, the abbreviation TETRA meant Trans-European Trunked Radio (Trans-European Trunked RAdio). However, due to the great interest in the standard in other regions, its scope is not limited to Europe. Currently, TETRA stands for Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TErrestrial Trunked Radio).
TETRA is an open standard, meaning that equipment from different manufacturers is expected to be compatible. Access to the TETRA specifications is free for all interested parties who have joined the Association "Memorandum of Understanding and Facilitation of the TETRA Standard" (MoU TETRA). The Association, which at the end of 2001 included more than 80 members, brings together developers, manufacturers, testing laboratories and users from different countries.
Work on the creation of the Tetrapol digital trunked radio standard began in 1987, when Matra Communications entered into a contract with the French gendarmerie to develop and commission the Rubis digital radio network. The communication network was put into operation in 1994. According to Matra, today the network of the French gendarmerie covers more than half of the territory of France and serves more than 15 thousand subscribers. In the same 1994, the Tetrapol forum was created, under the auspices of which the Tetrapol PAS (Publicly Available Specifications) specifications were developed, which define the standard for digital trunked radio communication.
The Tetrapol standard describes a digital trunked radio communication system with a dedicated control channel and frequency channel separation method. The standard allows you to create both single-zone and multi-zone communication networks of various configurations, also providing the possibility of direct communication between mobile subscribers without using the network infrastructure and relaying signals on fixed channels.
Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) technology was developed by Motorola in the early 1990s. The first commercial system based on this technology was deployed in the US by NEXTEL in 1994.
In terms of standard status, iDEN can be described as an enterprise standard with an open architecture. This means that Motorola, while retaining all rights to modify the system protocol, also grants licenses for the production of system components to various manufacturers.
This standard was developed to implement integrated systems that provide all types of mobile radio communications: dispatch communications, mobile telephone communications, text messaging and data packets. iDEN technology is focused on creating corporate networks of large organizations or commercial systems that provide services to both organizations and individuals.
The DMR (Digital Mobile Radio) digital standard for conventional professional radio communications, developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and known as a single pan-European digital radio standard, has gained wide popularity in more than 100 countries around the world. To date, the DMR standard is the undisputed leader in the market of modern digital technologies for terrestrial mobile radio communications LMR/PMR. The DMR standard is implemented not only in the generally accepted ranges of 136 - 174 MHz and 403 - 470 MHz, but also in the range of 450 - 527 MHz.
Organization of radio communication
A lot of materials on the Internet are devoted to the topic of organizing radio communications and the topic of radio communications itself. We will also do our part and touch on this issue. To use the operational technological radio communication system, it is necessary to obtain an operating permit. A permit to operate is issued for each radio-electronic device installed in a place with specific geographical coordinates with the definition of the conditions of electromagnetic compatibility with other radio-electronic devices and using specific frequencies.
The process of obtaining a permit includes several steps:
- Submission of an application for obtaining from the State Enterprise "UGCR" of the Conclusion on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of radio-electronic means (RES). The maximum term for preparing the Conclusion takes 80 calendar days. If international coordination is necessary, the term for preparing the opinion is extended for a period determined by the ITU Radio Regulations or relevant international treaties. The UGCR informs the applicant in writing about the need for coordination with the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and / or international coordination within five working days from the date of sending the documents to the relevant authorities. EMC conclusions of the RES are issued for a period of 6 months, during which it is necessary to build an operational radio communication system (SOR).
- After completion of the installation (assembly) of a fixed location RES, for which a conclusion regarding EMC was provided, the UGCR, in accordance with the procedure established by the NCRC, together with the Applicant, conducts acceptance tests at the site of operation. Based on the results of acceptance tests, an act of primary technical control is drawn up, which is the basis for making a decision on the possibility of granting an operating permit. Full-scale (test) tests are carried out by the Applicant in accordance with the Procedure for conducting acceptance tests of radio electronic equipment and emitting devices at the place of operation, approved by the decision of the National Commission for Regulation of Communications dated July 26, 2007 No. 854, registered with the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine on August 10, 2007 under No. 930 /14197, and special conclusion conditions regarding EMC. The results of full-scale and test tests are documented in a protocol, one copy of which is sent to the UGCR for a decision on the possibility of granting an operating permit.
- Submission of applications for obtaining a Permit to operate fixed and subscriber RES. Applications are submitted by the applicant before the expiry date of the relevant conclusions regarding EMC. The permit is issued to the applicant no later than three days after the presentation of a document confirming payment for the preparation of conclusions on electromagnetic compatibility and for the issuance of permits. The applicant personally, through a body or person authorized by him, receives at the main office of the UGCR (Branch) permission to operate at the place of registration of the application. The period of validity of the operation permit of the subscriber RES cannot exceed the period of validity of the operation permit of the associated base station of the radio network.
Main guiding documents
- Law of Ukraine "On the radio frequency resource of Ukraine" dated 04.10 .2018 No. 1770-III;
- Law of Ukraine "On telecommunications" dated 04.11.2018 No. 1280-IV;
- Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine "On Approval of the National Band Allocation Table radio frequencies of Ukraine" of December 15, 2005 No. 1208 (Edition of August 2, 2018)
- Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine "On approval of the plan for the use of the radio frequency resource Ukraine" dated 09.06.2006 No. 815 (Edition dated 31.08.2018)
- Regulatory acts National Commission, which carries out state regulation in the field of communications and informatization, as well as the existing legal acts of the National Commission for Regulation of Communications of Ukraine.
National Regulatory Organizations
- National Commission for State Regulation in the Sphere of Communications and Informatization (NCCIR). NCCIR is a body of state regulation in the field of telecommunications, informatization, the use of radio frequency resources and the provision of postal services. In a certain area, the NCCIR exercises the powers of a licensing authority, a permitting authority, a regulatory authority and a state supervision (control) authority;
- State Enterprise "Ukrainian State Center for Radio Frequencies" (UCRF). UGCR belongs to the sphere of management of the National Commission, which carries out state regulation in the field of communications and informatization. In a certain area, the UGCR takes part in the implementation of state supervision over compliance with the legislation on the radio frequency resource of Ukraine, carries out international protection, coordination of radio frequencies, and takes part in the work of the International Telecommunication Union.
Problems solved by licensed commercial radio communication
If the required frequency resource is obtained, the enterprise can build a full-fledged radio communication system that meets all the requirements for it and solves all the necessary tasks:
- Ensuring the required radio coverage area and communication quality, including the interior of buildings, structures, tunnels, bunkers, etc., due to:
- Using a system of interconnected base stations and repeaters located in places that provide full radio coverage, regardless of the location of the radio subscribers;
- Use of subscriber radio equipment with a sufficiently high output power;
- The use of high-quality, including distributed, high-gain antenna systems;
- Ensuring sufficient channel capacity for guaranteed operational communication of any number of radio subscribers and talkgroups;
- Organization of any required number of radio communication groups with the ability to simultaneously listen to several groups both on subscriber radio stations, and at employee workplaces when using radio communication dispatching applications and using mobile applications on smartphones and tablets;
- The use of any convenient, suitable, with the required parameters and properties of radio equipment: mobile, fixed radios, repeaters, portable radios for harsh environments in a protected version according to IP67, IP68 standards, explosion-proof, etc.;
- The use of various accessories: headsets in anti-noise design, concealed wearing, with helmet attachment; batteries with increased capacity, group chargers, etc.;
- Implementation of any type of calls: group, individual, priority, emergency, etc.;
- Ability to provide recording of radio conversations with reference to the subscriber's personal radio number and time;
- Access to the radio network from workplaces or smartphones using special software applications installed on the corresponding devices of employees, which allows you to be in touch without being in the coverage area of the radio network;
- Sending alarms: panic button, "fallen man", "lone worker";
- Determining the location of radio subscribers, incl. indoors using Indoor-positioning technologies;
- Simultaneous listening to radio conversations in several talkgroups with the possibility of flexible sound control in them, switching talkgroups, making multigroup and circular calls.
- Operation in radio networks of various services and frequency bands (for example, railway, shore-ship), using one radio station or a computer or mobile application;
- Telemetry transmission.
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