Controllers: BMS, MPPT, charge balancers
BMS (Battery Management System) is a battery management system that monitors and protects lithium-ion or other types of batteries from damage, overcharging, undercharging, overheating and other problems. The BMS usually consists of a charging circuit, a balancing circuit, a monitoring and control system, and may also include temperature sensors and other components.
MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) is an electronic solar charge management system that maximizes solar panel performance by selecting the best maximum power point to charge the battery. MPPT is used to optimize the performance of solar modules and increase the efficiency of solar energy, MPPT devices are most often equipped with a microcontroller that regulates the battery charge.
Charge balancing boards are electronic devices that are used to manage a battery by regulating the charge and discharge of each unit of the battery, including the electrolyte charge. Helps maintain voltage balancing between individual battery cells to avoid over-charging some cells and under-charging others, which can result in poor performance or damage to the battery. These boards can be used in conjunction with a BMS to provide more precise control and management of the battery.